About Vanadium

Vanadium - A Metal For The Future

Vanadium is in the midst of a bull market, due to Chinese steel demand and the advent of Vanadium Redox Batteries (VRB).

Steel Story
  • Used in the Steel industry as a strengthening agent, creating a lightweight, high temperature alloy.
  • Sichuan Earthquake killed 68,000 people in 2008, and injured a further 130,000. In response, China mandated a significant increase in required vanadium in rebar.
  • In November, 2018, China's new mandate went into full effect.
  • All above ground stockpiles have been depleted, and vanadium is in a shortfall.
Vanadium Usage

Steel and Alloy Applications



  • Vanadium is becoming an integral part of the new electric economy.
  • Vanadium redox flow batteries are ideal for grid storage capabilities.
  • Stable, capable of +100,000 recharge cycles without significant degradation, can charge and discharge simultaneously.
Vanadium Market
Vanadium continues to out - perform ALL other metals.

Supply pressures in China and South Africa, and no known stockpiles.

China has changed rebar standards so vanadium use will increase 30%.

Vanadium is key in the current ‘green revolution’ – 10% of current production earmarked for green technology.

Impending restricted supply and booming demand suggest significant further price rises.
Performance of Vanadium Since 2016
% Gain
Vanadium 619%
Cobalt 42%
Lithium 83%
Copper 31%
Gold 24%

Vanadium - Supply Side

We believe that the price increase is not only justified but increasing prices will continue due to increased demand and static supply.

  • Majority of existing production comes from China, Russia, Brazil & South Africa.
  • Primary vanadium production represents just 17% of annual production, with 71% as a byproduct of steel, and 12% from secondary sources.
  • China just banned importation of scrap metal, which previously resulted in 4,500-5,500 tonnes per annum.
  • China mine supply has already been curtailed by more environmental stringencies.
  • Since 2014, 11,000 tonnes have been removed from market following closure of the Evraz Highveld Mapochs Mine in South Africa.
  • In 2016, due to low iron ore prices, a slow down in iron ore production meant less vanadium production as a byproduct.
  • China has limited its exports of vanadium by 70%.
Source: Core Consultants, Vanadium Market Review, Issue 01 April 2018

Vanadium - Demand Side
  • China comprises 42% of demand in 2017, Europe 19%, N.A. 10%.
  • China will require an additional 17,000 tonnes per year of vanadium, which equates to 21% of global production.
  • Meanwhile, Vanadium Redox Batteries are being adopted at breakneck speed in China to support clean, baseload power from renewable sources.
  • Source: Core Consultants, Vanadium Market Review, Issue 01 April 2018.

US Policies Favour Vanadium
Executive Order 13817, signed on December 20, 2017, lists Vanadium as one of 35 critical metals to the USA.

US House of Representatives passed Amendment 122 to NDAA in June of 2018 to streamline permitting for critical metals.

Amendment 122 aims to accelerate permitting, licensing and work progress.

Long term security and value add for shareholders.
  • Hafnium
  • Rhenium
  • Tantalum
  • Uranium
  • Germanium
  • Indium
  • Gallium
  • Rare Earths
  • Lithium
  • Cobalt
  • Antimony
  • Graphite
  • Magnesium
  • Chromium
  • Tin
  • Tellurium
  • Manganese
  • Vanadium
  • Niobium
35 Critical
Metals of the
  • Beryllium
  • Zirconium
  • Tungsten
  • Aluminium
  • PGMs
  • Barite
  • Fluorspar
  • Arsenic
  • Scandium
  • Strontium
  • Titanium
  • Potash
  • Helium
  • Rubidium
  • Cesium
  • Bismuth
Vanadium Pentoxide$/lb